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Briefly put, the less WHERE is like IF, the more difficult it is to translate existing serial codes into array notation. Such codes tend to have the general structure of one or more DO loops iterating over array indices and surrounding a body of code to be applied to array elements. Conversion to array notation frequently involves simply deleting the DO loops and changing array element references to array sections or whole array references. If the loop body contains logical IF statements, these are easily converted to WHERE statements. The same is true for translating IF-THEN constructs to WHERE constructs, except in two cases. If the IF constructs are nested (or contain IF statements), or if ELSE IF is used, then conversion suddenly becomes disproportionately complex, requiring the user to create temporary variables or duplicate mask expressions and to use explicit .AND. operators to simulate the effects of nesting.

Users also find it confusing that ELSEWHERE is syntactically and semantically analogous to ELSE rather than to ELSE IF.

We therefore propose that the syntax of WHERE constructs be extended and changed to have the form

XBNF
where-construct -to -rule
to to **is ** where-construct-stmt
[ where-body-construct ]...
[ elsewhere-stmt
[ where-body-construct ]... ]...
[ where-else-stmt
[ where-body-construct ]... ]
end-where-stmt

where-construct-stmt -to -rule
to to **is ** WHERE ( mask-expr )

elsewhere-stmt -to -rule
to to **is ** ELSE WHERE ( mask-expr )

where-else-stmt -to -rule
to to **is ** ELSE WHERE

end-where-stmt -to -rule
to to **is ** END WHERE

mask-expr -to -rule
to to **is ** logical-expr

where-body-construct -to -rule
to to **is ** assignment-stmt
-to **or ** where-stmt
-to **or ** where-construct
XBNF

Constraint: In each *assignment-stmt*, the *mask-expr* and the
variable being defined must be arrays of the same shape. If a
*where-construct* contains a *where-stmt*, an *elsewhere-stmt*, or another *where-construct*, then the two
*mask-expr*'s must be arrays of the same shape.

The meaning of such statements may be understood by rewrite rules. First one may eliminate all occurrences of ELSE WHERE:

WHERE (m1) WHERE (m1) xxx xxx ELSE WHERE (m2) becomes ELSE yyy WHERE (m2) END WHERE yyy END WHERE END WHERE where xxx and yyy represent any sequences of statements, so long as the original WHERE, ELSE WHERE, and END WHERE match, and the ELSE WHERE is the first ELSE WHERE of the construct (that is, yyy may include additional ELSE WHERE or ELSE statements of the construct). Next one eliminates ELSE:

WHERE (m) temp = m xxx WHERE (temp) ELSE becomes xxx yyy END WHERE END WHERE WHERE (.NOT. temp) yyy END WHERE Finally one eliminates nested WHERE constructs:

WHERE (m1) temp = m1 xxx WHERE (temp) WHERE (m2) xxx yyy becomes END WHERE END WHERE WHERE (temp .AND. (m2)) zzz yyy END WHERE END WHERE WHERE (temp) zzz END WHERE and similarly for nested WHERE statements.

The effects of these rules will surely be a familiar or obvious possibility to all the members of the committee; I enumerate them explicitly here only so that there can be no doubt as to the meaning I intend to support.

Such rewriting rules are simple for a compiler to apply, or the code may easily be compiled even more directly. But such transformations are tedious for our users to make by hand and result in code that is unnecessarily clumsy and difficult to maintain.

One might propose to make WHERE and IF even more similar by making two other changes. First, require the noise word THERE to appear in a WHERE and ELSE WHERE statement after the parenthesized mask-expr, in exactly the same way that the noise word THEN must appear in IF and ELSE IF statements. (Read aloud, the results might sound a trifle old-fashioned-``Where knights dare not go, there be dragons!''-but technically would be as grammatically correct English as the results of reading an IF construct aloud.) Second, allow a WHERE construct to be named, and allow the name to appear in ELSE WHERE, ELSE, and END WHERE statements. I do not feel very strongly one way or the other about these no doubt obvious points, but offer them for your consideration lest the possibilities be overlooked.

Now, for compatibility with Fortran 90, HPF should continue to use ELSEWHERE instead of ELSE, but this causes no ambiguity:

WHERE(...) ... ELSE WHERE(...) ... ELSEWHERE ... END WHERE is perfectly unambiguous, even when blanks are not significant(fixed source form). Since X3J3 declined to adopt the keyword THERE, it should not be used in HPF either (alas), though it could be allowed optionally.

Thu May 5 15:11:02 CDT 1994